Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Organization, Going Concern, and Significant Accounting Policies

Organization, Going Concern, and Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Organization, Going Concern, and Significant Accounting Policies

Note 1 – Organization, going concern, and significant accounting policies




Foothills Exploration, Inc., (“Company”, “Foothills Exploration”, or “Foothills”) was incorporated in the state of Delaware on May 13, 2010, under the name “Key Link Assets Corp.” for the purpose of acquiring a portfolio of heavily discounted real estate properties in the Chicago metropolitan area. The Company changed its focus and planned to acquire small and medium sized grocery stores in non-urban locales that are not directly served by large national supermarket chains.


On May 2, 2016, Foothills Petroleum Inc., a Nevada corporation (“FPI”), acquired over 14.1 million pre-split (56.4 million post-split) shares of the Company’s common stock constituting approximately 96% of our then issued and outstanding shares (“FPI Acquired Shares”). As of May 16, 2016, we effected a 4:1 forward split of our shares of common stock.


On May 27, 2016, the Company entered into a Share Exchange Agreement with shareholders of FPI. See Note 2 – Share Exchange Agreement.


Prior to the Share Exchange, the Company had minimal assets and recognized no revenues from operations and was accordingly classified as a shell company. In light of closing the Share Exchange transaction with the shareholders of FPI, the Company became actively engaged in oil and gas operations and is no longer a shell company.


The consolidated balance sheets include the accounts of the Company, and its wholly-owned direct and indirect subsidiaries, Foothills Exploration, Inc. (“FTXP”), Foothills Petroleum, Inc. (“FPI”), Foothills Exploration, LLC (“FEL”), Foothills Petroleum Operating, Inc. (“FPOI”), Foothills Exploration Operating, Inc. (“FEOI”), Tiger Energy Partners International, LLC (“TEPI”), Tiger Energy Operating, LLC (“TEO”), and Tiger Energy Mineral Leasing, LLC (“TEML”).


The Company’s oil and gas operations are conducted by its wholly owned indirect subsidiaries. FEL is a qualified oil and gas operator in the states of Wyoming and Colorado, and TEO is a qualified oil and gas operator in the state of Utah.


The Company’s operating entities have historically employed, and will continue in the future to employ, on an as-needed basis, the services of drilling contractors, other drilling related vendors, field service companies and professional petroleum engineers, geologists, and landmen as required in connection with future drilling and production operations.


Going Concern


The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, which contemplate continuation of the Company as a going concern. The Company has incurred recurring losses from inception through December 31, 2017, has a working capital deficit at December 31, 2017, of $13,024,813, and has limited sources of revenue. These conditions have raised substantial doubt as to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for one year from the issuance of the financial statements. These financial statements do not include any adjustments that might be necessary if the Company is unable to continue as a going concern.


To address these matters, the Company is actively meeting with investors for possible equity investments, including business combinations; investigating other possible sources to refinance our existing debt; and in continuing discussions with various individuals and groups that could be willing to provide capital to fund operations and growth of the Company.


Significant Accounting Policies


Principles of Consolidation


The financial statements include the accounts of Foothills Exploration, Inc., and all of its direct and indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries including Foothill Petroleum, Inc., Foothills Petroleum Operating, Inc., Foothills Exploration Operating, Inc., Foothills Exploration LLC, Tiger Energy Partners International, LLC, Tiger Energy Operating, LLC and Tiger Energy Mineral Leasing, LLC. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.


Basis of Presentation and Functional Currency


These consolidated financial statements and related notes are presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and are expressed in United States dollars (USD).


Use of Estimates


The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date(s) of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period(s). Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various assumptions that are believed to be reasonable in relation to the financial statements taken as a whole under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Management regularly evaluates the key factors and assumptions used to develop the estimates utilizing currently available information, changes in facts and circumstances, historical experience and reasonable assumptions. After such evaluations, if deemed appropriate, those estimates are adjusted accordingly. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates include those related to assumptions used in impairment testing of long term assets, accruals for potential liabilities and valuing equity instruments issued for services. Actual results could differ from those estimates.




Certain reclassifications have been made to amounts in prior year to conform to the current year presentation. All reclassifications have been applied consistently to the periods presented and had no effects on previously reported results of operations.


Cash and Cash Equivalents


Cash and cash equivalents include all highly liquid debt instruments with maturity of three months or less.


Restricted Cash


Cash and cash equivalents that are restricted as to withdrawal or use under the terms of certain contractual agreements are recorded in restricted cash in the non-current assets section of our consolidated balance sheet. At each of the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company had restricted cash of $240,000. This amount is being held in escrow for the benefit of the State of Utah for certain properties located in Utah, covered under a certain Modification to Stipulated Order between the Utah Division of Oil, Gas and Mining and TEPI dated August 1, 2014 (Case No. SI/TA-102). These funds held in escrow, will be released to the Company once the Company finishes its reclamation of the various wells in question.


Accounts receivable and allowance for doubtful accounts


Accounts receivable are stated at the historical carrying amount net of an allowance for uncollectible accounts. The carrying amount of the Company’s accounts receivable approximates fair value because of the short-term nature of the instruments. The Company routinely assesses the collectability of all material trade and other receivables.


Trade accounts receivable comprise receivables from joint interest owners which are recorded when the Company incurs expenses on behalf of the non-operator interest owners of the properties the Company operates.


The Company’s oil and gas revenues receivable comprise receivables from purchasers of the Company’s production of oil and gas and other hydrocarbons and from operators of properties in which the Company has a non-operated interest, as well as from joint interest owners of properties the Company operates. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the company accrued $31,924 of net revenue receivable from EOG Resources, the operator of two wells in which the Company has a working interest, which the Company has been informed that EOG will apply to unpaid invoices of the Company’s share of costs to drill two wells until EOG has recovered those costs. During the year ended December 31, 2017, those costs were $1,501,377. See Note 4 – Property and Equipment.


The Company’s reported balance of accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts, represents management’s estimate of the amount that ultimately will be realized in cash or used in the future to offset an operator’s joint interest billings.


The Company reviews the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts on an ongoing basis, using historical payment trends, the age of the receivables and knowledge of the individual customers or joint interest owners. When the analysis indicates, management increases or decreases the allowance accordingly. However, if the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, additional allowances might be required.


Oil and Gas Properties


The Company follows the full cost method of accounting for its investments in oil and gas properties. Under the full cost method, all costs associated with the exploration of properties are capitalized into appropriate cost centers within the full cost pool. Internal costs that are capitalized are limited to those costs that can be directly identified with acquisition, exploration, and development activities undertaken and do not include any costs related to production, general corporate overhead, or similar activities. Cost centers are established on a country-by-country basis.


Capitalized costs within the cost centers are amortized on the unit-of-production basis using proved oil and gas reserves. The cost of investments in unevaluated properties and major development projects are excluded from capitalized costs to be amortized until it is determined whether or not proved reserves can be assigned to the properties. Until such a determination is made, the properties are assessed annually to ascertain whether impairment has occurred. The costs of drilling exploratory dry holes are included in the amortization base immediately upon determination that the well is dry.


For each cost center, capitalized costs are subject to an annual ceiling test, in which the costs shall not exceed the cost center ceiling. The cost center ceiling is equal to: (i) the present value of estimated future net revenues computed by applying current prices of oil and gas reserves (with consideration of price changes only to the extent provided by contractual arrangements) to estimated future production of proved oil and gas reserves as of the date of the latest balance sheet presented, less estimated future expenditures (based on current costs) to be incurred in developing and producing the proved reserves computed using a discount factor of ten percent and assuming continuation of existing economic conditions; plus (ii) the cost of properties not being amortized; plus (iii) the lower of cost or estimated fair value of unproved properties included in the costs being amortized; and less (iv) income tax effects related to differences between the book and tax basis of the properties. If unamortized costs capitalized within a cost center, less related deferred income taxes, exceed the cost center ceiling, the excess is charged to expense and separately disclosed during the period in which the excess occurs.


Support Facilities and Equipment


Our support facilities and equipment are generally located in proximity to certain of our principal fields. Depreciation of these support facilities is calculated on a units-of-production basis.


Maintenance and repair costs that do not extend the useful lives of property and equipment are charged to expense as incurred.


Proved Reserves


Estimates of the Company’s proved reserves included in this report are prepared in accordance with US GAAP and guidelines from the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The Company’s engineering estimates of proved oil and natural gas reserves directly impact financial accounting estimates, including depreciation, depletion, and amortization expense and impairment. Proved oil and natural gas reserves are the estimated quantities of oil and natural gas reserves that geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future years from known reservoirs under period-end economic and operating conditions. The process of estimating quantities of proved reserves is very complex, requiring significant subjective decisions in the evaluation of all geological, engineering and economic data for each reservoir. The accuracy of a reserves estimate is a function of: (i) the quality and quantity of available data; (ii) the interpretation of that data; (iii) the accuracy of various mandated economic assumptions, and (iv) the judgment of the persons preparing the estimate. The data for a given reservoir may change substantially over time as a result of numerous factors, including additional development activity, evolving production history and continual reassessment of the viability of production under varying economic conditions. Changes in oil and natural gas prices, operating costs, and expected performance from a given reservoir also will result in revisions to the amount of the Company’s estimated proved reserves. The Company engages independent reserve engineers to estimate its proved reserves.


Fixed Assets


The Company capitalizes expenditures related to property and equipment not directly associated with our production of oil and gas, subject to a minimum rule, that have a useful life greater than one year for: (1) assets purchased; (2) existing assets that are replaced, improved or the useful lives have been extended; or (3) all land, regardless of cost, acquisitions of new assets, additions, replacements and improvements (other than land) costing less than the minimum rule in addition to maintenance and repair costs, including any planned major maintenance activities, are expensed as incurred.


Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets.


Office equipment – 3 years

Vehicle(s) – 5 years

Land – not depreciated


Asset Retirement Obligations


The Company follows the provisions of the Accounting Standards Codification ASC 410 - Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations. The fair value of an asset retirement obligation is recognized in the period in which it is incurred if a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made. The present value of the estimated asset retirement costs is capitalized as part of the carrying amount of the long-lived asset. The Company’s asset retirement obligations relate to the abandonment of oil and gas producing facilities and facilities that support the production of oil and gas. The amounts recognized are based upon numerous estimates and assumptions, including future retirement costs, future inflation rates and the credit-adjusted risk-free interest rate. After recording these amounts, the ARO will be accreted to its future estimated value using the same assumed cost of funds, and the capitalized costs are depreciated on a unit-of-production basis. Both the accretion and the depreciation will be included in depreciation, depletion and amortization expense on our consolidated statements of operations.


Fair Value of Financial Instruments


For certain of the Company’s financial instruments, including cash and equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued liabilities and short-term debt, the carrying amounts approximate their fair values due to their short maturities. ASC Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures,” requires disclosure of the fair value of financial instruments held by the Company. ASC Topic 825, “Financial Instruments,” defines fair value, and establishes a three-level valuation hierarchy for disclosures of fair value measurement that enhances disclosure requirements for fair value measures. The carrying amounts reported in the consolidated balance sheets for receivables and current liabilities each qualify as financial instruments and are a reasonable estimate of their fair values because of the short period of time between the origination of such instruments and their expected realization and their current market rate of interest. The three levels of valuation hierarchy are defined as follows:


  Level 1: Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities. The Company considers active markets as those in which transactions for the assets or liabilities occur in sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis
  Level 2: Quoted prices in markets that are not active, or inputs which are observable, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability. This category includes those derivative instruments that the Company values using observable market data. Substantially all of these inputs are observable in the marketplace throughout the term of the derivative instruments, can be derived from observable data, or supported by observable levels at which transactions are executed in the marketplace.
  Level 3: Measured based on prices or valuation models that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and less observable from objective sources (i.e. supported by little or no market activity). Level 3 instruments include derivative warrant instruments. The Company does not have sufficient corroborating evidence to support classifying these assets and liabilities as Level 1 or Level 2.


The Company analyzes all financial instruments with features of both liabilities and equity under ASC 480, “Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity,” and ASC 815. The carrying amounts of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities, including cash, prepaid expenses, accounts payable, accrued expenses, and other current liabilities, approximate their fair values because of the short maturity of these instruments. The fair value of notes payable and convertible notes approximates their fair values since the current interest rates and terms on these obligations are the same as prevailing market rates.


Certain of the Company’s debt and equity instruments include embedded derivatives that require bifurcation from the host contract under the provisions of ASC 815-40, Derivatives and Hedging. The estimated fair value of the derivative warrant instruments was calculated using a Black Scholes valuation model.


The following table sets forth by level within the fair value hierarchy our financial assets and liabilities that were accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2017 and 2016:


          Fair Value Measurement at  
    Carrying Value     December 31, 2017  
          Level 1     Level 2     Level 3  
Derivative assets, debt and equity instruments   $     $     $     $  
Derivative liabilities, debt and equity instruments     458,387                   458,387  


              Fair Value Measurement at  
      Carrying Value       December 31, 2016  
              Level 1       Level 2       Level 3  
Derivative assets, debt and equity instruments   $     $     $     $  
Derivative liabilities, debt and equity instruments                        


The Company did not identify any other assets and liabilities that are required to be presented on the consolidated balance sheet at fair value.


Revenue Recognition


The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with the requirements of ASC 605-10-599, which directs that it should recognize revenue when (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists (contracts); (2) delivery has occurred; (3) the seller’s price is fixed or determinable (per the customer’s contract); and (4) collectability is reasonably assured (based upon our credit policy). All of our revenue is attributable to sales of oil, gas, and other hydrocarbons which are sold daily, with sales aggregated on a monthly basis. In the case of revenue received for a non-operated working interest, we are paid by the operator, which is a joint interest partner and not the purchaser of the product. In the case of revenue received for an operated working interest, we are paid by the marketer to whom we sell the commodities directly pursuant to contractual arrangements.


Debt Issuance Costs, Debt Discount and Detachable Debt-Related Warrants


Costs incurred to issue debt are deferred and recorded as a reduction to the debt balance in our consolidated balance sheets. We amortize debt issuance costs over the expected term of the related debt using the effective interest method. Debt discounts relate to the relative fair value of warrants issued in conjunction with the debt and are also recorded as a reduction to the debt balance and accreted over the expected term of the debt to interest expense using the effective interest method.


Net Earnings (Loss) Per Common Share


The Company computes earnings per share under ASC 260-10, “Earnings Per Share.” The Company’s earnings (loss) per share are computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings (loss) per share reflects the potential dilution of securities, if any, that could share in the earnings (loss) of the Company and are calculated by dividing net income by the diluted weighted average number of common shares. The diluted weighted average number of common shares is computed using the treasury stock method for common stock that may be issued for outstanding stock options, warrants, and convertible debt.


    December 31,  
    2017     2016  
Net income (loss) available to stockholders   $ (6,493,871 )   $ (1,941,138 )
Basic net income allocable to participating securities (1)            
Income (loss) available to Foothills Exploration, Inc.’s stockholders   $ (6,493,871 )   $ (1,941,138 )
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding-Basic     14,418,719       8,422,180  
Effect of dilutive securities:                
Options and warrants (2)            
Stock payable (3)     205,000       200,000  
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding-Diluted     14,623,719       8,622,180  
Net income (loss) per share:                
Basic   $ (0.45 )   $ (0.23 )
Diluted   $ (0.44 )   $ (0.23 )


  (1) Restricted share awards that contain non-forfeitable rights to dividends are participating securities and, therefore, are included in computing earnings using the two-class method. Participating securities, however, do not participate in undistributed net losses.
  (2) For the year ended December 31, 2017, “out of the money” stock options representing 2,050,000 shares and warrants representing 2,683,515 shares were antidilutive and, therefore, excluded from the diluted share calculation. For the year ended December 31, 2016, “out of the money” stock options representing 450,000 shares and warrants representing 1,025,000 shares were antidilutive and, therefore, excluded from the diluted share calculation.
  (3) For the year ended December 31, 2017, stock payable representing 205,000 shares were anti-dilutive. For the year ended December 31, 2016, stock payable representing 200,000 shares were anti-dilutive.


Income Taxes


The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences, and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.


Stock-Based Compensation


All share-based payments, including grants of stock to employees, directors and consultants, are recognized in the consolidated financial statements based upon their estimated fair values.


The Company accounts for stock, stock options, and stock warrants issued for services and compensation by employees under the fair value method. For non-employees, the fair market value of the Company’s stock is measured on the date of stock issuance or the date an option/warrant is granted as appropriate under ASC 718 “Compensation – Stock Compensation”. The Company determined the fair market value of the warrants/options issued under the Black-Scholes Pricing Model. Under the provisions ASC 718, share-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date, based on the fair value of the award, and is recognized as an expense over the employee’s requisite service period (generally the vesting period of the equity grant).


The Company’s accounting policy for equity instruments issued to consultants and vendors in exchange for goods and services follows ASC Topic 505. As such, the value of the applicable stock-based compensation is periodically re-measured and income or expense is recognized during their vesting terms. The measurement date for the fair value of the equity instruments issued is determined at the earlier of (i) the date at which a commitment for performance by the consultant or vendor is reached or (ii) the date at which the consultant or vendor’s performance is complete. In the case of equity instruments issued to consultants, the fair value of the equity instrument is primarily recognized over the term of the consulting agreement. In accordance with FASB guidance, an asset acquired in exchange for the issuance of fully vested, non-forfeitable equity instruments should not be presented or classified as an offset to equity on the grantor’s balance sheet once the equity instrument is granted for accounting purposes.


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


In November 2015, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes (“ASU 2015-17”). ASU 2015-17 requires companies to classify all deferred tax assets and liabilities as noncurrent on the balance sheet instead of separating deferred taxes into current and noncurrent amounts. The guidance is effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. Early adoption is permitted. The guidance may be adopted on either a prospective or retrospective basis. The adoption of ASU 2015-17 did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.


In February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) (“ASU 2016-02”). ASU 2016-02 addresses the financial reporting of leasing transactions. Under current guidance for lessees, leases are only included on the balance sheet if certain criteria classifying the agreement as a capital lease are met. This update will require the recognition of a right-of-use asset and a corresponding lease liability, discounted to the present value, for all leases that extend beyond 12 months. For operating leases, the asset and liability will be expensed over the lease term on a straight-line basis, with all cash flows included in the operating section of the statement of cash flows. For finance leases, interest on the lease liability will be recognized separately from the amortization of the right-of-use asset in the statement of operations and the repayment of the principal portion of the lease liability will be classified as a financing activity while the interest component will be included in the operating section of the statement of cash flows. This guidance is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The Company has not yet completed the analysis of how adopting this guidance will affect its consolidated financial statements.


In March 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2016-09”). ASU 2016-09 simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. Some of the areas of simplification apply only to nonpublic entities. For public business entities, the amendments in ASU 2016-09 are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. The adoption of ASU 2016-09 did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.


In January 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2017-01, Clarifying the Definition of a Business (“ASU 2017-01”). The standard clarifies the definition of a business by adding guidance to assist entities in evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions of assets or businesses. ASU 2017-01 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Under ASU 2017-01, to be considered a business, the assets in the transaction need to include an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create outputs. Prior to the adoption of the new guidance, an acquisition or disposition would be considered a business if there were inputs, as well as processes that when applied to those inputs had the ability to create outputs. Early adoption is permitted for certain transactions. Adoption of ASU 2017-01 may have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements if it enters into future business combinations.


In January 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (“ASU 2017-04”). ASU 2017-04 simplifies the accounting for goodwill impairment by removing Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test, which requires a hypothetical purchase price allocation and may require the services of valuation experts. ASU 2017-04 is effective for annual or interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and should be applied on a prospective basis. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company does not anticipate the adoption of ASU 2017-04 will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.


In July 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2017-11, Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features (“ASU 2017-11”). When determining whether certain financial instruments should be classified as liabilities or equity instruments, a down round feature no longer precludes equity classification when assessing whether the instrument is indexed to an entity’s own stock. ASU 2017-11 is effective for annual or interim periods within those fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 and should be applied on a retrospective basis. Early adoption is permitted for all entities, including adoption in an interim period. The Company adopted ASU 2017-11 on its consolidated financial statements.


Other recent accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB, including its Emerging Issues Task Force, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the Securities and Exchange Commission did not or are not believed by management to have a material impact on the Company’s present or future consolidated financial statements.